Arguably the easiest way to disinfect water is to stick it on your fire and boil it. Depending on how large your fire-safe container (such as a pot) is, you could easily purify lots of water quickly – though bear in mind you still need to store it and let the water cool before drinking.

If you don’t have a fireproof container at hand, don’t despair!

Heat some rocks in the fire for at least thirty minutes before placing them into your container. Be mindful of the fact river rocks and quartz have a tendency to explode when exposed to high heat.

It should be noted boiling your water isn’t guaranteed to get rid of all chemical pollutants and contaminants. But it remains one of the most reliable disinfection methods, killing parasites, pathogens, and bacteria.

Ideally, you should boil water for at least 10 minutes. To be on the safe side – especially at higher elevations – increase this to between 12 and 15 minutes.